Sindromul colonului iritabil Imprimare Email
Sindromul colonului iritabil este caracterizata prin disconfort sau durere abdominala variabila, constipatie sau diaree, sau episoade alternante de constipatie si diaree. In aceasta boala este alterat echilibrul normal dintre activitatea motorie a intestinului si activitatile secretorii, dintre actiunile stimulante si cele inhibitorii. Intestinul are in acest caz contractii neregulate si nepropulsive.


SIMPTOME


Semnele si simptomele pot varia mult de la o persoana la alta si adesea seamana cu cele ale altor boli. Printre cele mai comune sunt:
     - crampe sau dureri abdominale
     - meteorism
     - diaree sau constipatie
     - mucus in scaun
Se pot adauga si alte semne nespecifice:
     - greata
     - arsuri
     - dureri de cap
     - insomnie
     - senzatie de lesin
     - palpitatii
     - transpiratie


CAUZE


Boala este datorata unui complex de factori de natura diferita: stres, anxietate, stari emotionale, mese neregulate si luate in graba, abuz de laxative, suprasolicitare, astenie, lipsa de somn. Apare adesea dupa enterite virale, bacteriene sau toxice. Daca activitatea motorie este mai redusa si cea de aliminare a apei este crescuta, apare constipatia. In cazul invers, cand activitate motorie este excesiva iar absorbtia de apa din intestin este redusa, apare diareea. Durerile se datoresc dilatarii intestinului cu gaze si spasmele acestuia.


DIAGNOSTIC


Diagnosticul este unul de excludere, dupa eliminarea completa a unor cauze organice.


TRATAMENTUL


Tratamentul incepe cu eliminarea cauzelor de stres, cu recomandarea unei alimentatii rationale, unui program regulat, unor mese la ore regulate, evitarea sedentarismului. Regimul va contine legume, fructe fierte, oua, peste, carne fiarta sau gatita fara condimente. Bolnavii cu diaree nu tolereaza de obicei laptele, lichidele fierbinti sau foarte reci, cafeaua, alcoolul si tutunul.
Nu se recomanda folosirea de laxative sau clisme, din cauza actiunii lor iritante. In anumite cazuri, tratamentul poate fi completat cu sedative usoare, tranchilizante sau relaxante.
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