Refluxul gastroesofagian Imprimare Email
Refluxul gastroesofagian este o afectiune in care lichidele continute in stomac sunt regurgitate in esofag. Lichidul regurgitat contine acid si pepsina care sunt produse de stomac si cateodata bila. Acidul este cea mai daunatoare componenta a lichidului regurgitat. Pepsina si bila pot si ele sa produca rani pe esofag dar rolul lor in producerea inflamatiei esofagului este mai putin insemnat. Reluxul gastrointestinal este o afectiune cronica. Dupa ce acesta a debutat, de obicei nu se vindeca. Organismul are anumite mecanisme de a se apara de efectele refluxului acid. Cele mai multe refluxuri se produc in timpul zilei cand persoanele sunt in pozitie verticala. In pozitie verticala, lichidul ajunge din nou in stomac datorita gravitatiei. In plus, de fiecare data cand inghititi, saliva care contine bicarbonat, neutralizeaza o parte din acidul din esofag. Gravitatia, inghititul si saliva sunt mecanisme de protectie importante pentru esofag, dar ele sunt eficiente doar cand indivizii sunt in pozitie verticala. Noaptea, in timpul somnului, gravitatia nu ajuta, inghititul se opreste si secretia de saliva este redusa. Prin urmare refluxul gastroesofagian produs noaptea produce leziuni mai mari esofagului.


SIMPTOME


Cele mai frecvente simptome sunt:
     - senzatii de arsura in piept, uneori chiar si in gat si un gust rau in gura
     - dureri de piept in special noaptea cand stati intinsi
     - dificultati de inghitire
     - tuse sau dureri in gat
     - regurgitarea de mancare sau lichide


CAUZE


Cand inghititi, sfincterul cardia (un tesut musculos care inconjoara esofagul in partea de jos) se relaxeaza si permite alimentelor si lichidelor sa coboare in stomac. Apoi se inchide. Daca sfincterul se relaxeaza anormal sau se slabeste acidul din stomac urca in esofag. Refluxul gastroesofagian poate fi provocat si de alte boli cum ar fi hernia hiatala. Aceasta boala se caracterizeaza prin patrunderea unei parti a stomacului in partea de jos a pieptului.

Alti factori care favorizeaza aparitia refluxului gastroesofagian sunt:
     - anumite alimente: mancaruri grase, condimentate, ciocolata, cafeaua, ceapa, sosul de rosii, menta, bauturile carbogazoase
     - alcoolul
     - mesele bogate
     - anumite medicamente precum sedativele si tranchilizantele sau medicamentele pentru tratarea hipertensiunii arteriale
     - fumatul
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