Glomerulonefrita Imprimare Email
Glomerulonefrita acuta este o boala inflamatorie a ambilor rinichi care afecteaza in general copiii intre 2 si 12 ani. Glomerulonefrita cronica se poate dezvolta in 10 sau 20 de ani si este de obicei asociata si cu alte boli ca: diebetul, malaria, hepatita, sau lupusul sistemic eritomatos


SIMPTOME


In formele usoare, boala nu produce simptome. In formele mai grave pot sa apara:
     - oboseala
     - greata si varsaturi
     - respiratie grea
     - perturbarea vederii
     -  hipertensiune arteriala
     - transpiratie (in special a fetei, palmelor, picioarelor si a gleznelor)
     - sange si proteine in urina care ii confera un aspect tulbure sau rosiatic


CAUZE


Glomerulonefrita acuta este cauzata de obicei de o infectie streptococica a gatului sau a pielii. La copii este asociata de obicei cu infectii ale cailor respiratorii. Simptomele la rinichi apar de obicei dupa 2 sau 3 saptamani de la infectia initiala. Expunerea la anumiti agenti ca: vopsea, clei, solventi organici poate fi de asemenea una din cauzele bolii. Se presupune ca in acest din urma caz, rinichiul este deteriorat de toxinele eliminate in urina. Persoanele cu glomerulonefrita cronica pot descoperi boala in timpul unui examen de rutina din care se observa o tensiune arteriala ridicata sau in timpul unui examen ocular in care se observa schimbari vasculare. Rinichii pot fi redusi la o cincime din marimea lor normala, si sunt formati din tesut fibros.

 

TRATAMENT


Tratamentul glomerulonefritei depinde de:
     - forma acuta sau cronica a bolii
     - cauza care a produs-o
     - tipul si severitatea semnelor si simptomelor
Anumite cazuri, in special cele care apar ca urmare a infectiilor streptococice, se vindeca singure, fara a necesita tratament. Pentru a controla hipertensiunea arteriala si a diminua declinul functiei renale, medicul poate prescrie diuretice. In functie de cauza bolii medicul poate sa prescrie si: antibiotice, corticosteroizi, medicamente imunosupresoare.
Alte procedee:
     - plasmafereza: este un procedeu care consta in scoaterea anticorpilor din sange prin prelevarea plasmei sangvine si inlocuirea ei cu plasma de la un donator.
     - dializa: este folosita doar temporar in cazul glomerulonefritei acute.

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